We did Programme as a camera setting back last November, when an alarming number of members were convinced that Elephants were a European phenomena (you had to be there), possibly confusing them (the pachiderms) with Mammoths, possibly from remembering seeing them at the zoo. This meeting it was the turn of the rest of the dial and no such confusion reigned thanks to the scholarly efforts of Chris Harvey, Gerry Painter, Steve Hallam, Eddie House and Simon Caplan. Between them they had manipulation of the exposure triangle well and truly nailed.
And if we nail the exposure triangle we have the control of light within our grasp. The other thing we need to have control of is what is acceptably sharp in the picture, a function of lens aperture and shutter speed moderated by the selected ISO setting. With these two things nailed in under ten minutes we are a photographer! Our position in the Point and Shoot Pantheon is but a matter of time!
Ah but …. these are the mechanical issues of image capture. Often photographers are as interested in the settings a frame was taken at as the content and whereas they are the key mechanical elements in capturing the image we are viewing they are actually a long, long way down the list of priorities in making a good, bad or outstanding one.
Unless our job is making, marketing and or selling cameras for a living.
The reasons are thus: to plagiarise that image you have to be in the same place, at the same angle, in the same light, focused in the same manner, with the same connection to the same elements within the frame, and using the same size sensor. Even then all you have done is copy. The only thing worth copying is the look and that can be as much about post processing as image capture these days. The valid reason for copying a look is to learn about photography by applying it to other opportunities. The camera settings represent one choice from a multiplicity of options to arrive at the same amount of light captured.
Let’s put it this way: ISO 100, F8, at 1/125th second gathers as much light as ISO 400, F11, at 1/250th of a second, gathers as much light as ISO 1600, F4, at 1/8000th of a second gathers as much light as ISO 200, F32 at 1/15th second. What alters is the depth of field and the relative degree of that in these examples would depend on sensor/film size. This other variable is why we refer to crop factors compared to the old film size “full frame” 35mm standard (so that those of us set in our ways can get a handle on the perspective generated by a given focal length) and perspective is relative, he wrote with entirely deliberate ambiguity.
As we have been plugging the last few weeks rather heavily – and in every blog published for the club, regardless of author – the issue of absolute prime importance is composition. Yes we have to get the mechanicals “right” for the image we have visualised but that will not arrest the attention of our viewer nearly as much as the arrangement of the elements in the frame. The legendary crime/street photographer Weegee, coined the phrase “F8 and be there” when asked what was the secret to success in his photography. Weege used a Speed Graphic 4 x 5 inch camera and a flash bulb for illumination. The point is, know our equipment and how it gets us the results we visualised. To be fare some people ascribe the quote to Robert Kappa but the point remains the same. Being there means we get the chance to get the picture the f stop is only of relevance If you have the camera with you.
Now, we can argue what being there actually implies. and the list would probably be quite lengthy. Most photography to do lists seem to end up that way. Some people even write books about it. Reading photography books is a very good idea, but putting the ideas we draw from them to use is even more productive. Knowing what camera settings other people use can be informative, knowing the performance limitations of our own camera gives us the confidence to experiment. In fact, it could be argued, there are two sorts of photographers who are happy about using Auto/Programme settings. Those who are just starting out and those who are confident enough in their use of the camera to know what it is going to do and when and under what conditions we might have to over ride or compensate. And that leaves us to concentrate on visualisation and composition, which is where the art is coming from.
Most photographers, however, set their cameras to aperture priority and leave them there to control the depth of field. Which is fine. So is shutter priority to control blur. So is manual to control everything, though as a permanent setting does rather slow things down – which can be the point. Auto/Programme is fine. Find one that works for you and use the others to play to their strengths.
Quiz Nights. You can’t beat them so we joined ‘em. Thanks to Myk Garton for putting the evening together, I know from first hand experience just how much effort goes into making it look effortless. And of course all participants showed themselves masters of their hobby. This week on the blog we will wrap up two of the three remaining questions from the Week 2 Q by looking at: What is front curtain, rear curtain and slow flash? And what is Back button focus? This week has also been the big European photographic trade show, Photokina, held in Germany, one year I will have sufficient time and money to go …..
Still, daydreaming aside, what is front curtain, rear curtain and slow synch flash? Flash, aka strobes, aka those lighty things, is an area that is both technical and often ignored by the amateur. Yet it is one of the most effective accessories we can purchase. After all most of us have one built into our cameras, even if it does get overlooked most of the time. There is more to this than we will look at here, indeed we will visit this in a future blog, but for now we will explore the question that was put concerning these three often found menu options.
For this specific question we do not have to differentiate between off camera flash (or strobes if you prefer) and on camera (that is pop-up or otherwise built in). The reason behind this is that this is a specific question of the firing order of the flash in relation to the curtain or shutter. Mostly this is done off the position of what is known as the front curtain. The majority of cameras have a two curtain (shutter) set up. This enables faster shutter speeds, the flash synch speed of your camera is actually around about the fastest speed that the whole of the sensor is exposed. Otherwise it is exposed through a slit formed by the front and the rear shutter curtains moving across the sensor plane at a fixed distance apart. The faster the shutter speed the closer the gap.
If you expose using a strobe/flash unit above the flash synchronisation speed you get a dark band of varying width according to the shutter speed as the duration of a flash is extremely short. Because the lens projects things upside down onto the sensor and the shutters move from top to bottom this band will appear from the bottom upwards. Not so much of a problem if you only need light at the top of the frame, but not actually something that is easy to fine control both because of the position of the shutter at any given time and how much darker the rest of the frame is.
So why have a front curtain flash and a rear curtain flash? It’s to do with the motion blur in the frame and where the pulse of light freezes that in time. The least subtle explanation, nonetheless one that actually holds true, is that you use front shutter curtain to freeze the action. You might use your maximum shutter synch speed (often automatically set but that depends upon make and model of your camera body) to give yourself the maximum chance of freezing the action. You use the rear shutter curtain and, usually, a lower shutter speed to freeze the foreground and retain some motion blur in the scene. And slow synch flash? Well that is an automatic camera mode that forces a slower shutter speed and synchronises the flash. You can get some very different looking results from the same scene using these variations. As ever, try it out for yourself.
Back button focusing, once you’ve tried it you will never go back. At least that is what its fans say and there is no denying that it is a very useful tool. We looked at this on the blog last August viz “Back Button Focusing (refer to your manual for the native translation in your Camera’s Brand-Speak) does exactly what it says on the incredibly expensive magnesium alloy tin, or plastic camera body as befits your pockets/needs/delusions of grandeur. It is a button on the back of your camera body that activates the camera’s focusing system in isolation from the shutter release. When you operate via the shutter release a half pressure triggers the autofocusing system (assuming you are not mounting a manual lens) and a full depress activates the shutter release. Usually the shutter will not fire until the camera processor detects all the algorithms are in place to produce a point of focus and an acceptable circle of confusion (i.e. something is in focus …). The button itself is usually marked AF or a version thereof and is normally accessible with the right thumb (I’ve never seen one on the left but then I haven’t conducted a survey in any depth). And it’s on the back of the camera.”
Yeah, that is what it is but what use is it? Well first off there is the fact that, whilst depressed, the AF button means that you hold whatever it is you have focused on. In the automatic modes focus shifts when you shift what you are looking at, which can be time consuming. In order to keep the focusing, for instance if you want to shift the main point of focus to the edge of the frame and blur the background. You might want to add to that you can use the continuous mode (AF-C or AF-Servo depending on your camera body manufacturer) of focusing on your camera when following action and use the AF button to freeze the most advantageous point (takes some practice but worth the effort with a high degree of movement in the frame). Or basically no more having to focus every time you let go of the shutter which takes time and can mean that you loose your shot. Annoying when it was already in focus the last time you half depressed the shutter.
So now you know. Next meeting is Table Top photography, a practical so bring your cameras and tripods. Maybe your flashes too!
You cannot deny the poetry of Bath stone in a soft sunset, with the canal and the river yielding mirrored Georgian realities on a pleasantly warm and breeze-less evening. At least until you get home and look at your images to finally yield to the notion “What the hell was I thinking?”. Last minute change of venue with the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta closing roads around the intended destination of Leigh Woods, and a fine suggestion from Vice Chair Myk Garton saw us decamp the dozen miles or so to the World Heritage City of Bath. Two topics left over from last week to discuss this: back button focusing and exposure lock, both of which were useful tools on the night.
There are two buttons on the back of most DSLR/CSC’s from the hobbyist models upwards that are rarely if ever troubled by the majority of hobbyist photographers. One is the “Back Button” AF and the other the AEL (which may be represented on your camera by a star or asterisk). Both are incredibly useful and are really worth cultivating as default, in the case of the back button AF, and useful tool in the case of AEL, that can help increase your number of keepers. A little bit of background is useful in understanding both.
Back Button Focusing (refer to your manual for the native translation in your Camera’s Brand-Speak) does exactly what it says on the incredibly expensive magnesium alloy tin, or plastic camera body as befits your pockets/needs/delusions of grandeur. It is a button on the back of your camera body that activates the camera’s focusing system in isolation from the shutter release. When you operate via the shutter release a half pressure triggers the autofocusing system (assuming you are not mounting a manual lens) and a full depress activates the shutter release. Usually the shutter will not fire until the camera processor detects all the algorithms are in place to produce a point of focus and an acceptable circle of confusion (i.e. something is in focus as we discussed last week). The button itself is usually marked AF or a version thereof and is normally accessible with the right thumb (I’ve never seen one on the left but then I haven’t conducted a survey in any depth). And it’s on the back of the camera.
So far so blindingly obvious. Also, so what? Well, my skeptical friend, for that we shall have to take a brief incursion into the Trinity of Focus you played with once, got annoyed with then left on single shot. That, incidentally, is a perfectly acceptable solution because it’s your picture, your way. You want to do it the hard way, then suffer on for your art. It will not take better pictures, only you can do that, but it will help you be prepared for those better pictures, if only by speeding the whole process up and in more than one way. It is a little like buying a fully spec’d DSLR and leaving it permanently on auto or programme. In one way an expensive choice, but if you know what it does in those modes and you know how to override it in the situations where you think you need to push something to get the effect you want, then, pilgrim, it’s not such an expensive choice. It’s one that is made with a purpose rather than one made unthinkingly.
There are in our CSC/DSLR and some bridge cameras usually three flavours of autofocus. They may have slightly different sets of initials and names but they will be essentially the same. They will be in the menu system and may be programmable, at least the menu access may be programmable, to a button on the camera body. RTM (Refer To Manual). The auto focus programmes in your camera were designed because your subject is doing one of three things. It is either static or it is moving. Or you are. Or you both are. The important dynamic is that between the subject and the sensor. What the back button does for us is allow us to switch between modes as required without having to resort to the menu system.
So, lets take the modes in alphabetical order, starting with AF-A. -A is where the camera decides, as is the case with all auto and programme modes, and it chooses between the other two modes depending upon what is closest to the idea set by its algorithms, i.e. is the subject static or moving relative to the sensor. On modern cameras it is pretty good but it only responds to what is, it won’t anticipate your next move, so it will always be playing catch up. -C is continuous. When the subject is moving the focus moves. -S is for when the subject is still, like a portrait. What the back button does is take a step out of the process of firing the shutter, the focus (at half way down) is done by the back button and so the shutter button becomes just that. Without disabling the focus step the lens will attempt to refocus that which is in focus (which you have already framed as part of your composition). Doing things twice, slows things down. You are effectively switching between –A and –C at a press of a button. There is always manual focus of course, but this tends to be easier with manual lenses which have a longer throw (the barrel twists further because they are geared lower to make them easier to focus by hand) and no where near as rapid. In the words of Professor Fate, “Push the button, Max“.
We’ve talked about exposure before and its relation to colour saturation, detail contrast and so on so I won’t go over that in this blog. I want to concentrate on an option rather than an effect, though the two are linked, of course. The exposure lock button found on most DSLR/CSC cameras and some bridge cameras. Sometimes the exposure you need is not the one your camera is showing you. This can be down to the metering mode you are using and the fact that it is metering an average from the area you have selected to measure from in terms of both the subject and the percentage of the sensor coverage involved. There will be a wide, centre weighted and a spot option. Wide is usually factory default. Spot takes a very small area in the middle.
Essentially, in tricky lighting situations, probably but not exclusively covering a wide variation, you meter from the most important part of the scene to your image, keep the AEL AFL or * button depressed then recompose and take your image. The overall exposure will be governed by that part you selected. You don’t have to use spot to do this, just influence that part of the scene you want to feature to your satisfaction (this is far, far easier on a CSC/DSLT where what you see is what you get or in your live view if it allows composition other than pure review). It is very effective and can be used with ISO compensation for fine control. On our Bath perambulation it was very useful when we were presented with a glorious sun set and allowed for much of the foreground to be silhouetted whilst retaining the exposure for the sky. Yes this could have been done in manual, but it was done far quicker using Aperture Priority and AEL. Try it, it is surprising useful.
Next week a change in programme where Nick Hartley has negotiated access to the Tannery where he works. Details on Facebook and the club Flickr page as numbers are limited. If your name’s not on the list your not coming in. Who’d a thought leather had a door policy?
Apologies for late posting, certain technical problems rather got in the way.
Portishead Marina was our destination this week where the old Power Station has been demolished and developed into a series of housing developments around the old harbour. Portishead’s two other claims to fame are the band of the same name and the fact that the first Trans Atlantic wireless signal was received here and it became a famous name in maritime communication with the developments that followed it. No big beach to speak of, unlike last week at Weston Super Mare, nor any motorcycle show of any size, at least that I could see. Certainly there were more boats than to be found at Weston and more expensive ones at that. The weather was better too, in terms of the amount of sunshine, but that brings challenges of its own. A good walk around in good company and a discussion on depth of field, exposure locking and back button focusing. I will deal with back button focusing next week along with exposure locking, but this week it’s about what is in focus and why….
Depth of Field is often blithely referred to as if you can’t be a photographer without it (whereas you can’t be a photographer only without something to focus light and fix an image in reality). Certainly if you aim to take your photography more seriously and you are using something with variable aperture glass, then depth of field (DoF as we shall refer to it from here on) is something you need to be able to manipulate to enhance your images. In this way it is a third dimensional compositional aid (which is no mean thing in a two dimensional field). It is also one of the first skills that we master.
Your lens only really focuses on one point, think of it as the pin point in pin sharp and what we refer to as DoF is that part of the image we find to be “Acceptably sharp” i.e. it looks in focus. The brain acting on what the eyes transmit to it makes that decision with small variations from individual to individual but we can generally agree on what is and isn’t in “focus”. This is known as “The Circle of Confusion” (I trust you haven’t joined it yet) or more, accurately the “Acceptable Circle of Confusion”, that part of the image that our brains process as being the same or indistinguishable from the actual point that the lens focused on. When we talk about an image being soft we are talking about the margins of what we perceive as being acceptably sharp which is at or beyond the limits of the circle of confusion, but transitions are gradual and there is no defined point at which sharp becomes unsharp and vice versa. DoF is what we see in an image from the closest to the furthest point we see as being sharp (within the acceptable circle of confusion).
Using a lens with a variable aperture we can vary the circle of confusion. Aperture is the size of the hole that we squeeze the light through in our lenses on its way to the sensor. It acts as a regulator on how much light gets through. What fraction of the available light gets through we measure in F-Stops. F stands for focal and it’s the amount of light that is getting stopped. Hence F-Stop. This also determines how much in front and behind the focus point is acceptably sharp. The F-Stop tells you exactly how big the hole is that is letting the light through. It is calculated by dividing the lens focal length by the apertures diameter. So a 50mm lens at F8 gives you an aperture diameter of 6.25mm. A 135mm lens at F8 yields an aperture of 16.88mm. Of most interest to lens manufacturers, but it does stand for something important that we otherwise take for granted. And also it relates to that question that is forming in the back of your mind.
But why isn’t DoF the same on all lenses? Good question and it’s down to the DoF and its relation to the DoF. What? There are two? Oh yes indeed, the Depth of Field is directly linked to the Depth of Focus of a lens. As photographers we are interested in Depth of Field, but it would not be possible without lens designers understanding Depth of Focus (and that’s not helped by the fact that a lot of people think they are the same thing). Depth of Focus is easiest thought of as the point at which the lens you have on the camera places the focal point. Remember that a lens actually only focuses one precise distance (point), that pin point in pin sharp, and what we accept as being in focus is down to the Circle of Confusion. The smaller the pin point in relation to the circle of confusion the deeper the depth of field. The larger the shallower. That’s why your small sensor compact camera has a deeper depth of field at any given aperture than your APS-C sensor DSLR, which is deeper than your 35mm “Full Frame” sensor and why you will see F128 on a 10 x 8 inch plate camera lens but not on any of the others in this list. Aperture also controls the circle of confusion.
On the top of most (all?) DSLT/DSLR camera bodies somewhere is etched a circle with a line through it. This isn’t for decoration it tells you whereabouts in relation to the rest of the camera body the sensor plane, aka film plane is. The sensor to the end of the body, the bit where you attach your lens most importantly, is a fixed distance. This allows you to attach different lenses of different focal lengths to the same camera body and the focusing ring/auto focus mechanism moves that fixed point backwards and forwards. When we see an object in focus it means that the three things that determine what is in focus, are all aligned, (aperture focal length and the distance to the object) in relation to the fixed point that is the sensor plane and accommodated by the acceptable circle of confusion. When the pin point in pin sharp is in front of or behind the sensor and beyond the circle of confusion your object appears out of focus.
So much, so theoretical. How can we turn this into something practical? Well with something that sounds as if you need tablets for, hyper focal distance. Hyper Focal Distance is much loved by landscapers, but that isn’t the only time you can use it. Essentially it is based on the mathematics of the sensor size, depth of focus and depth of field and is the closest distance a lens can be focused that yields sharpness at infinity at a given aperture. Now infinity is a theoretical concept which, in practice, means the horizon, or the furthest point in the frame from the camera. You can use your lens’s distance scale – if it has one, if it doesn’t you can’t – and on longer lenses this is probably the best option. On the shorter ones, especially wide angle lenses, a tape measure, or I use the length of my pace (2 steps is 5 feet but only 10 toes) as the Hyper Focal Distance is shorter with wide angle lenses. A lazer measure might be a reasonable investment if you do a lot of this.
My 8mm I just set at 2 feet and snap away. Everything is in focus from 50cm (19.5 inches) to infinity at f4 when the lens is focused at 3 feet (actually 38.5 inches, or 0.98 m). Do a lot of it then a laser range finder might well be a good investment. The 50mm lens, or a zoom set at 50mm, has a hyper focal distance of 39m (19m to infinity) at f4, A 135mm, set at f4 has a hyper focal distance of 278m (139m and beyond).
But how do we know what distance is hyper focal? Well we need to know the sensor size, focal length and aperture. If you have a smart phone, then you can get a hyper focal distance calculator with something like Photo Tools (Android and I-Phone, free), or you can memorise the relevant distance from tables suitable for your lenses (and crop factor) – it helps that there is a linear relationship between distance and aperture, so whatever the hyperfocal distance at an aperture of f2.8 it will be half that at f5.6 a quarter at f11. As long as you know what the distance is with your lens wide open you can work it out for other apertures. As lenses tend to be at their crispest all round between f8 and f11 that is probably a good place to commit to memory for the times when you don’t have the tables to hand.
It is surprising just how useful hyper focal distance can be. Try it this Thursday when we shall be meeting outside the main doors of Bath Abbey at 19:00 (7pm).